India in engleza
On the Indian Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of the
Maldives on the southwest, Sri Lanka on the south, and Indonesia on the
southeast. India also claims a border with Afghanistan to the
The Republic of India is a country in South Asia which comprises of the
majority of the Indian subcontinent. India has a coastline which
stretches over seven thousand kilometres, and shares its borders with
Pakistan to the west, the People's Republic of China, Nepal, and Bhutan
to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar on the east. On the Indian
Ocean, it is adjacent to the island nations of the Maldives on the
southwest, Sri Lanka on the south, and Indonesia on the southeast.
India also claims a border with Afghanistan to the northwest.
India is the fourth largest economy in the world in terms of purchasing
power parity. It is the second most populous country in the world, with
a population of over one billion, and is the seventh largest country by
geographical area. It is home to some of the most ancient
civilizations, and a centre of important historic trade routes. Four
major world religions: Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism have
originated from India. Formerly a major part of the British Empire as
the British Raj before gaining independence in 1947, during the past
twenty years the country has grown significantly, especially in its
economic and military spheres, regionally as well as globally.
During the middle of the second millennium, several European countries,
including the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and British, who were
initially interested in trade with India, took advantage of fractured
kingdoms fighting each other to establish colonies in the country.
After a failed insurrection in 1857 against the British East India
Company, popularly known in India as the First War of Indian
Independence and most commonly known in the West as the Indian Mutiny,
most of India came under the direct administrative control of the crown
of the British Empire.
'The Wheel of Konark'. The Sun Temple at Konark, Orissa built in the
13th century, is one of the most famous monuments of stone sculpture in
The Brihadisvara Temple or "Big temple" in Tanjavore was built by the
chola emperor Raja Raja Chola in the 10th century AD.
In the early part of the 20th century, a prolonged and largely
non-violent struggle for independence, the Indian independence
movement, followed, to be eventually led by Mahatma Gandhi, regarded
officially as the father of modern India. The culmination of this
path-breaking struggle was reached on 1947-08-15 when India gained full
independence from British rule, later becoming a republic on 1950-01-26.
As a multi-ethnic and multi-religious country, India has had its share
of sectarian violence and insurgencies in different parts of the
country. Nonetheless, it has held itself together as a secular, liberal
democracy barring a brief period from 1975 to 1977 during which the
then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi declared a "state of emergency" with
the suspension of civil rights. India has unresolved border disputes
with China, which escalated into a brief war in 1962, and Pakistan
which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965, and 1971, and a border
altercation in the northern state of Kashmir in 1999. India was a
founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement and the United Nations. In
1974, India conducted an underground nuclear test, making it an
unofficial member of the "nuclear club", which was followed up with a
series of five more tests in 1998. Significant economic reforms
beginning in 1991 have transformed India into one of the fastest
growing economies in the world and added to its global clout.
India is divided into twenty-eight states (which are further subdivided
into districts), six Union Territories and the National Capital
Territory of Delhi. States have their own elected government, whereas
Union Territories are governed by an administrator appointed by the
union government, though some have elected governments.
India's entire north and northeast states are made up of the Himalayan
Range. The rest of northern, central and eastern India consists of the
fertile Indo-Gangetic plain. Towards western India, bordering southeast
Pakistan, lies the Thar Desert. The southern Indian peninsula is almost
entirely composed of the Deccan plateau. The plateau is flanked by two
hilly coastal ranges, the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
India is home to several major rivers such as the Ganga (Ganges), the
Brahmaputra, the Yamuna, the Godavari, and the Krishna. The rivers are
responsible for the fertile plains in northern India which are
conducive to farming.
The Indian climate varies from a tropical climate in the south to a
more temperate climate in the north. Parts of India which lie in the
Himalaya have a tundra climate. India gets most of its rains through
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