American Peregrine Falcon
In 1988, at a
site now inundated by Greers
peregrine falcons reared their young. Over a century passed before
peregrines returned to Arkansas.
In June 1993, an
environmental team flew to Minnesota
and picked up five fledgling falcons. These birds were given a new home
Arkansas Power & Light Company power station on the White River in Independence County.
acclimated to their new area in a hacking station 300 feet above the
then released when ready to fly. Three birds survived and were often
flying near the White and Black rivers.
In 1994, six more
peregrines were released from a hacking station atop the TCBY Tower
in Little Rock, Arkansas's tallest building. It is
relocated falcons will imprint on their new homeland and return to nest
permanent structures built for their use. Reintroductions like these
worked successfully in many other parts of the U.S.,
thanks in part to falconers
who have raised thousands of peregrines in captivity for eventual
peregrines live on every continent except Antarctica,
they are always rare. In Arkansas,
they're most likely to be seen from mid-September through mid-May in
recent history holds a cautionary tale. In the 1950s and '60s, these
magnificent birds were nearly wiped out when their food chain was
with pesticides, primarily DDT. All 275 known nesting sites in the
eastern U. S.
by 1964. To our good fortune, however, they were saved from extinction.
are now more than 1,200 pairs in North America,
a four-fold increase in the last 20 years.
still have not roused ourselves to face the real enemy. DDT and other
persistent pesticides continue to be manufactured and exported to the Third World, and the chemicals currently used in
countries may be almost as deadly. Many contend we must change
practices on a global scale; only then will we be heeding the message
the falcon brings.
America's efforts to save endangered species reached a milestone with
announcement by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service that the bald eagle
recovered sufficiently to change its status from endangered to
most of the nation. Bald eagle numbers in the lower 48 states climbed
nesting pairs in 1963 to more than 4,400 pairs in 1994. In addition,
6,000 juvenile bald eagles live in the lower 48. Federal protection and
tremendous public support led to this recovery -- through stricter law
enforcement, protection of important habitat, reintroduction, a strong
education program and banning of DDT, a pesticide that interfered with
successful bald eagle nesting since 1930 was reported in Arkansas in
1982. In 1995, 18 pairs of Arkansas
successfully fledged young from the nest. An eagle hacking program
the Game and Fish Commission in 1982 contributed to this resurgence.
eagles from Minnesota and Wisconsin are brought to the state, raised in
"hacking" facilities and released in hopes they will return to raise
their young in Arkansas.
Arkansas ranks in the top
10 states in the number of winter bald eagle sightings. Over 1,000 bald
are counted each winter, nearly triple the 368 recorded in 1979.
The gray bat's
range is concentrated in the cave regions of Arkansas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee and Alabama, with occasional colonies
individuals in adjacent states. The population is estimated at more
million; however, about 95 percent hibernate in only eight caves -- two
three in Missouri,
and one each
This makes the
population extremely vulnerable.
Gray bat numbers
decreased significantly during recent decades -- 61 percent in Arkansas, 89
percent in Kentucky,
81 percent in Missouri
and 76 percent
The population is now on the upswing, though, as a result of improved
success due to better protection measures such as cave gates, fences
informational signs near caves.
One Arkansas hibernation
cave houses about 250,000 gray bats, over 15 percent of the total
About 150,000 gray bats occupy Arkansas
caves in summer.
disturb hibernation and maternity colonies present one of the greatest
Maternity colonies won't tolerate any disturbance, especially when
newborn young are present. Thousands of baby bats may be dropped to
deaths or abandoned by panicked parents. If aroused during hibernation,
increase use of stored fat reserves, and if the disturbance is intense
frequent enough, starvation may result before insects are available in
Other factors in
the species' decline include vandalism, cave commercialization,
poisoning, natural calamities such as flooding and cave-ins, loss of
to inundation by man-made impoundments and possibly a reduction of
over streams that have been
excessive pollution and siltation
These small brown bats
for their remarkable hibernation clusters. Each bat hangs by its feet
cave ceiling, and as many as 480 have been counted in a single square
Indiana bats range
throughout much of the eastern U. S. They number less than 400,000.
85 percent hibernate at only seven locations --tow caves and a mine in Missouri, two
caves in Indiana
and two caves in
A marked decline
has been reported in Arkansas
no longer visit 10 caves where they previously hibernated. A Newton County
cave that once contained 7,000 hibernating Indiana bats now shelters less than
caves house more than 30 Indianas
during their winter hibernation period (October to April). The present Arkansas
(less than 3,000) is half the 1981 size.
The total U. S.
population dropped more than 34 percent since 1983. The decline is
to commercialization of roosting caves, killing by vandals,
by increased numbers of spelunkers and bat banding programs, use of
laboratory experimental animals and possible insecticide poisoning.
hibernacula are unstable as a result of blocking or impeding airflow
caves and thereby changing the cave's climate.
One Arkansas hibernation
cave was fenced by the National Park Service to protect Indiana and
gray bats. Four additional
hibernation caves in the Ozark
lands are closed to the public and posted with signs to protect bat
Protecting these caves may result in an increase in bat populations at
caves, but experts say it's unlikely Indiana
bats will recolonize abandoned caves.
Only male Indiana bats have been
found in Arkansas
during summer. Females migrate northward to maternity roosts north of
Ozark Big-Eared Bat
This bat is aptly
named, for its ears are of comic-book proportions. They're usually
the animal rests, like miniature ram's horns. Lump-nosed bat is another
name, a reference to a conspicuous protuberance between the nostril and
About 1,700 Ozark
big-eareds remain. Approximately 1,400 inhabit a few caves in eastern Oklahoma. The
in two Arkansas
caves -- a hibernation cave and a nearby maternity cave in the Ozarks.
now considered extinct.
Human disturbance and wanton
killing at caves are the primary reasons for their endangered status.
at cave entrances by feral house cats, raccoons, screech owls, bobcats
snakes may also be a factor in their decline.
to protect Ozark big-eared bats in Oklahoma
led the Fish and Wildlife Service to establish the Oklahoma Bat Cave
Wildlife Refuge. The Arkansas
hibernation cave is owned and protected by the Natural Heritage
the owner of the maternity cave has entered into an agreement to
Little is known
about the pallid sturgeon. This bottom-feeding fish reaches 68 pounds
rarely observed and infrequently taken on hook-and-line. Even
records are sketchy, for the species was not formally distinguished
more-common shovelnose sturgeon until 1905.
are rare throughout their range, which includes the Missouri River and the Mississippi
below St. Louis.
Only two records are known for Arkansas,
one each from the Mississippi
and St. Francis rivers.
decline should concern all Arkansans, because it is one indication that
river systems like the Mississippi
are sick. Creation and maintenance of the Mississippi
River as a navigation system has altered the waterway and
continues to threaten its viability as an ecosystem. Municipal
discharges, industrial pollution, agricultural runoff and sedimentation
erosion contaminate the river and pose a major threat tot river
problems threaten pallid sturgeons and humans alike.
In the mid-1800s,
John J. AUDUBON described the red-cockaded woodpecker as abundant in
pine forests. Today, 10,000 to 14,000 remain, living in a fragmented
the southeastern U. S.
woodpeckers, the red-cockaded roosts in cavities in live pines. It
needs 80 to
120-year-old pines for its cavities, and extensive pine and
forests to meet its foraging requirements. Much of the Southeast has
cleared for agriculture. Many remaining pine forests are unsuitable for
red-cockaded woodpecker. Each year, more areas become unsuitable.
the drastic loss and continued decline of habitat, the bird is
In 1994, 157
active clusters (groups of cavity trees) were found in Arkansas ---
121 on private lands, 35 on
federal land (Primarily Felsenthal NWR) and one on state property. Most
For the species
to survive here, private landowners must take positive steps to aid its
recovery. Fortunately, that's beginning to happen. In 1993, the
Company established a landmark conservation agreement with the Fish and
Wildlife Service to hall protect the woodpecker on thousands of acres
company land. Other companies have established similar agreements. The
has also responded favorable to artificial cavity and translocation
Salmon (Salmo salar) is often called "The king of the river" (which
belongs to the genus Oncorhynchus)
Salmon are fish
that can be two metres long and more than forty kilograms in weight.
Their muzzle is long, and
they have a lot of teeth in their mouth. Their skin colour changes with
and sex; when they are at rest the colour on the back is iron-blue and
belly is white, but when they go up the rivers, their back becomes
They have a
voracious appetite and can swim very fast when they live in the sea,
they go up the river, they do not eat until after they spawn, that is
At the moment of
their reproduction the salmon comes back to the river, where it was
the highest course, and there the females lay the eggs from November
They make a pit in the
stream gravel into which they lay thousands of eggs, and after that
them with sand from the bottom. Later, the males cover the eggs with
liquid during a week.
months birth takes place, and after some states (fry, parr...) they
In Spain there are
salmon in the northern rivers but it has been checked that the number
that go up the rivers is decreasing in an alarming way.
The salmon lives
in the seas of the northen hemisphere, and it gets into the European
American rivers at regular times and it is a relative of the Pacific
At the beginning of this
century there were in the Narcea River (the most important river in Spain
as far as
salmon are concerned) about five thousand salmon going up the river in
nowadays there are hardly one thousand.
There are many
causes of depopulation of the Spanish rivers: natural and artificial
We must use
different approaches to solve these problems. We could build fish
allow salmon to go upstream, try to purify the current state of the
regulate and forbide the use of nets and apply sanctions against the
would be through natural and artificial restocking.
The solution is
in our hands; what today is easy, tomorrow would be a waste of time.!
Perhaps there does not exist
an animal so pursued as the salmon. After a long time in the ocean,
has suffered considerably because of the voracity of its enemies, and
closer to the coast looking for its river to reproduce.
This is when
really the salmpn's struggle for life begins because it has to face up
worst and the most terrible enemy - Man.
Today we are in
time, tomorrow it may be too late!!!
Great White Shark
The Great White
is a fish. It has a fin on the top of the body called a dorsil fin.
The Great White
can grow from six to twelve metres long. It is a grey blue colour on
it's body and white on the bottom. The great white shark eats seals,
other sharks, carrien of dead whales, octopus and rubbish.
When they have
babies, the babies go away or risk getting eaten by the mother.
The great white
shark is found in cold waters and warm waters.
white sharks are found in lakes of Australia and New Zealand.
The great white
shark is endangered because people are killing them for food and sport.
People are scared
They also are
endangered because people are polluting the water.
People should not
pollute the ocean. They should not kill great whites for food or sport.
Great white sharks
are not man eaters. Leave sharks alone to swim in peace.
We have loved the
sea for a long time and we have always wanted to do a project on The