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Aminoacizii naturali

Categoria: Referat Chimie

Descriere:
Aminoacizii sunt combinatii organice care contin in molecula una sau mai multe grupe amino si una sau mai multe grupe carboxil. Dupa structura, amino-acizii se impart in doua mari categorii: 1.Alifatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de o catena alifatica, chiar daca in molecula exista un nucleu aromatic.

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Aminoacizii naturali

Aminoacizii sunt combinatii organice care contin in molecula una sau mai multe grupe amino si una sau mai multe grupe carboxil. Dupa structura, amino-acizii se impart in doua mari categorii:
1.   Alifatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de o catena alifatica, chiar daca in molecula exista un nucleu aromatic.
2.   Aromatici: unde grupele functionale sunt legate de un ciclu aromatic.

Dupa asezarea relativa a grupelor functionale se deosebesc α-amino-acizi, β-amino-acizi, γ-amino-acizi, etc. Dintre amino-acizii alifatici, cei mai importanti sunt α-amino-acizi, adica acei amino-acizi care contin grupele functionale legate de acelasi atom de carbon. Se deosebesc mai multe categorii mari de α-amino-acizi alifatici:
1.   monocarboxilici
2.   dicarboxilici
3.   hidroxi-amino-acizi
4.   tioamino-acizi
5.   diamino-acizi
6.   amino-acizi heterociclici

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Denumirea      Prescurtarea    Formula 

Amino-acizi  monocarboxilici

Leucina (acidul α-aminoizocapronic)    Leu      CH3-CH-CH2-CH-COOH                  |                    |                CH3                 NH2    
Izoleucina (acidul α-amino-β-metilvalerianic)    Ileu      CH3-CH2-CH - CH-COOH                              |         |                            CH3      NH2   
Fenilalanina (acidul α-amino-β-fenil-propionic)  Fe                           -CH2-CH-COOH                                      |                                    NH2 
Glicocolul(glicina) (acidul aminoacetic)         Gli       CH2- COOH        |       NH2     
Alanina (acidul α-aminopropionic)       Ala      CH3-CH-COOH                   |                 NH2  
Valina (acidul α-aminoizovalerianic)    Val        CH3-CH - CH-COOH                   |         |                 CH3       NH2           

 

Amino-acizi dicarboxilici

Acidul asparagic (acidul aminosuccinic)        Asp       HOOC-CH2-CH-COOH                                     |                                   NH2   
Acidul glutamic (acidul α-aminoglutaric)       Glu       HOOC-CH2- CH2-CH-COOH                                                |                                              NH2   

 

Hidroxi-amino-acizi

Treonina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxibutiric)        Tr         CH3-CH - CH-COOH                  |           |                 OH      NH2   
Tirosina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxifenil-propionic)        Ti             HO                    -CH2-CH-COOH                                                |                                              NH2   
Serina (acidul α-amino-β-hidroxipropionic)         Ser        CH2 - CH-COOH        |         |       OH     NH2           

Tio-amino-acizi

Cistina (acidul di[α-amino-β-tiopropionic] )       Ci-S  Ci-S   HOOC-CH-CH2-S-S-- CH2-CH-COOH                       |                                           |                  NH2                                     NH2
Metionina (acidul α-amino-γ-metiltiobutiric)    Met  CH2- CH2-CH-COOH    |                     |      S -- CH3          NH2   

Cisteina (acidul α-amino-β-tiopropionic)           Cis        CH2 - CH-COOH        |          | SH      NH2           

 

Diamino-acizi

Ornitina (acidul α, δ-diaminovalerianic)            Or       CH2- CH2-CH2-CH-COOH      |                                |    NH2                                        NH2 
Lisina (acidul α, ε-diaminocapronic)      Lis      CH2- CH2-CH2-CH2-CH-COOH     |                                            |   NH2                                                         NH2

Amino-acizi heterociclici

 Prolina (acidul pirolidin-α-carboxilic)     Pro                           H2C- CH2                              |         |                          H2C      CH-COOH                              \       /                                 NH    
Hidroxiprolina (acidul β-hidroxipirolidin-α-carboxilic)              Hipro                     HO-HC - CH2                                |           |                         H2C      CH-COOH                             \       /                                NH 
Histidina (acidul α-amino-β-imidazolil-(4)-propionic) (imidazolil-(4)-alanina)        His          N - C - CH2- CH-COOH          ||       ||                        |        HC     CH                NH2           \       /              NH       
Triptofanul (acidul α-amino-β-indolil-(3)-propionic) (indolil-(3)-alanina)              Tri                                                                - CH2- CH-COOH                                              |                                            NH2          

 

 

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