Cuvinte in limba engleza  folosite in mediul economic





         Bank= organisation that accepts deposits, makes loans and performs related services for the public

         Commercial bank=is a type of financial intermediary and a type of bank. It raises funds by collecting deposits from businesses and consumers via checkable deposits, savings deposits, and time deposits. it makes loans to businesses and consumers. it also buys corporate bonds and goverment bonds. its primary liabilities are deposits and primary assets are loans and bonds.*profit-earning banking institution which operates in wholesale and retail banking, offering a wide range of financial services.

         Credit Union=a financial cooperative organizations of individuals with a common affiliation (such as employment, labor union membership, or place of residence). Credit unions accept deposits of members, pay interest (dividends) on them out of earnings, and primarly provideconsumer installment credit to members.

         Creditworthiness=a creditor's measure of a consumer's or company's past and future ability and willlingness to repay debts.*a system popular in North America, by which people with a common bond collaborate to put their savings in a joint fund; members can then apply to borrow from thefund and make repayments at an annual interes rate.

         Depositary=an agent authorized to place funds, securities in safekeeping in a depository institution.

         Depository=a bank holding funds or maketable sercurities usually under a specific agreement.

         Financial intermediary=any organization that accepts funds from one party and passes these funds to another, making their profit by an interest rate margin.

         Financial market=a market not necessarily with a physical presence where money is either bought and sold or borrowed and lent.

         Financial supermarket= a name given to describe the major banks in the uk; since they are able to provide any financial service required they have been compared with a supermarket.

         Investment Bank= a bank that acts as an intermediary between entities that want to issue securities and investors; it may also be involved in controlling portofolios, advise on mergers, takeovers, privatization.

         Merchant Bank=specific to the Uk, currently considered an Acceptance House, its main functions are dealing with acceptance and discounting of bills of exchange and trade finance;  it also deals with mergers, takeovers, share placing, new issues of securities, investment management; the origins of such institutions stemmed from trading as merchants with specialized knowledge in certain commodities or regions of the world; eventualy as banking become more important to them then acting as merchants they were given the popular name of "merchant banks".

         Bank deposit= funds placed with a bank in a saving account or in a demand account subject to withdrawal.

         Borrower=a person or group that obtains funds from a lender for a particular period of time. They assume
legal obligations for the repayment of the load principal plus interest.

         Cash in hand= the amount of money held in the form of notes and coins by a person or business.

         Funding=the means of raising cash to invest in earning assets; banks fund their assets with deposit and non-deposit liabilities.

         Globalisation=the internalisation of financial institutions and markets.

         Hedge Fund=private investment partnership or an offshore investment corporation in which the general partner has made a substantial personal investment in order to invest in many markets; this funds often take large risks and speculative strategies.

         Leverage=the use of debt financing by a firm.

         Money market fund=a type of mutual fund set up in the '70 in the USA that invests in short term money market instruments to benefit from increases of interest rates.

         Mutual fund= financial intermediary that pulls the resurses of many small investors by selling them shares and using the proceeds to by securities.

         Non-Bank=organisation which either accepts deposits or make comercial loans, but not both.

         Saving bank= a term used to cover a variety of banks whose function is to encourage small savers; the major services are the deposit and withdrawal of cash, with interest paid on balances; with the change that have taken place in the banking systems, few banks can be regarded as purely saving banks.

         Country risk=risk that economic or political changes in a foreign country will cause delays in loan repayments; it is broader then country risk as it takes in to account the probability of debt repayment by private borrowers as well as central goverments.


         Credit risk=refers to the probability of borrowers not repaying their loans, it is a major risk a commercial bank faces.

         Foreign exchange risk=the uncertainity associated with an expected change in the value of foreign currencies; also calles currency risk.

         Interest rate risk= the exposure to unexpected change in interest rates; it is measured by a banks gap, i.e. the diference between rate sensitive assets and rate sensitive liabilities; it has two components: risk and reinvestment risk.

         Liquidity risk= the uncertainity about a bank's ability to meet its obligations as they fall due including both deposit withdrawals and loan demand.

         Market strategy risk=the uncertainty that an organisation will fail to properly define its markets or fail to develop the financial services and products that create a demand.

         Regulatory risk=the risk that unforseen regulatory action will damage a firm's profitability.

         Operational risk= the risk associated with losses from inappropriate control, humal failure, tehnical errors, fraud or unexpected losses such as littigation.

         Settlement Risk= the risk that unexpected settlement amount will not be made on time.

         Sovereign Risk=the risk that foreign government will default on a loan due to economic dificulties or a change of government or restrictions imposed on fund releases.

         Technology risk= the risk of tehnological obsolence.

         Balance sheet= a statement showing the capital assets and liabilities of a business entity at a certain date.

         Capital Adequacy=the ability to absorb the ununticipated losses associated with a various risc of banking.

         Common stok(AE) equity stok(BE)= security representing equity ownership in a corporation; holders have the right to collect dividends and to vote.

         Guarantee=the taking of responsibility for the payment of a debt or the performance of an obligation should the prime debtor fail to fulfil his/her obligation.

         Hedging= process whereby a dealer or investor will seek to gain some protection against the possible loss of their investment owing to some sudden movement in the market; it include options, forwards etc.; a perfect hedge eliminates the possibility of future gain or loss.

         Net Worth= total value of all the assets less all curent and long term liabilities; it should equal the value of invested capital plus reservers; also known as owner's equity.

         Preferred Stock=capital stock that pays dividends at a specified rate and that has preference over common stock and asset liquidation; ordinary it does not carry voting rights.

         Repurchase=agreement between a buyer and a seller of securities, whereby the seller agrees to buy back that security at a specified time, at an agreed price; also known as a buyback; it gives a bank immediate funds.

         Volatility=the degree to which financial instruments or markets are subject to market fluctuations.

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